Madhya-lilaChapter 19: Lord Sri Caitanya Mahaprabhu Instructs Srila Rupa Gosvami

Bhaktivedanta VedaBase: Sri Caitanya Caritamrita Madhya 19.187

hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bibhatsa, bhaya

panca-vidha-bhakte gauna sapta-rasa haya

SYNONYMS

hasya -- laughter; adbhuta -- wonder; vira -- chivalry; karuna -- pathetic feeling; raudra -- anger; bibhatsa -- disaster; bhaya -- fearfulness; panca-vidha-bhakte -- in five kinds of devotees; gauna -- indirect; sapta-rasa -- seven kinds of mellows; haya -- there are.

TRANSLATION

"In addition to the five direct mellows, there are seven indirect mellows, known as laughter, wonder, chivalry, compassion, anger, disaster and fear.

PURPORT

Santa-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (3.1.4-6) as follows:

vakshyamanair vibhavadyaih saminam svadyatam gatah

sthayi santi-ratir dhiraih santa-bhakti-rasah smritah

prayah sva-sukha-jatiyam sukham syad atra yoginam

kintv atma-saukhyam aghanam ghanam tv isa-mayam sukham

tatrapisa-svarupanubhavasyaivoru-hetuta

dasadi-van-mano-jnatva-lilader na tatha mata

When santa-rati (neutral attraction) exists continuously and is mixed with ecstatic emotion, and when the devotee relishes that neutral position, it is called santa-bhakti-rasa. Santa-bhakti-rasa devotees generally relish the impersonal feature of the Supreme Personality of Godhead. Since their taste of transcendental bliss is incomplete, it is called aghana, or not concentrated. A comparison is made between ordinary milk and concentrated milk. When the same devotee goes beyond the impersonal and tastes the service of the Supreme Personality of Godhead in His original form as sac-cid-ananda-vigraha [Bs. 5.1] (His transcendental, blissful body, complete in knowledge and eternity), the taste is called concentrated (ghana) transcendental bliss. Sometimes the devotees in santa-rasa relish transcendental bliss after meeting the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but this is not comparable to the transcendental bliss relished by the devotees situated in dasya-rasa, the transcendental mellow in which one renders service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead.

Dasya-rasa, or dasya-bhakti-rasa, is described in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (3.2.3-4) as follows:

atmocitair vibhavadyaih pritir asvadaniyatam

nita cetasi bhaktanam priti-bhakti-raso matah

anugrahy asya dasatval lalyatvad apy ayam dvidha

bhidyate sambhrama-prito gaurava-prita ity api

When according to his desires the living entity develops love for the Supreme Personality of Godhead, this beginning stage of love is called dasya-bhakti-rasa. Dasya-bhakti-rasa is divided into two categories, called sambhrama-dasya and gaurava-dasya. In sambhrama-dasya, the devotee renders respectful service to the Supreme Personality of Godhead, but in the more advanced gaurava-dasya, his service takes the form of giving protection to the Lord.

Sakhya-bhakti-rasa is described as follows in the Bhakti-rasamrita sindhu (3.3.1):

sthayi-bhavo vibhavadyaih sakhyam atmocitair iha

nitas citte satam pushtim rasah preyan udiryate

"According to one's original consciousness, ecstatic emotions may be exhibited as continuously existing in fraternity. When this stage of Krishna consciousness is mature, it is called preyo-rasa or sakhya-bhakti-rasa."

Vatsalya-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (3.4.1) as follows:

vibhavadyais tu vatsalyam sthayi pushtim upagatah

esha vatsala-namatra prokto bhakti-raso budhaih

"When eternally existing love of Godhead transforms into parental love and is mixed with corresponding emotions, that stage of spiritual existence is described by learned devotees as vatsalya-bhakti-rasa."

Madhura-bhakti-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (3.5.1) as follows:

atmocitair vibhavadyaih pushtim nita satam hridi

madhurakhyo bhaved bhakti-raso 'sau madhura ratih

"If in accordance with one's own natural development in Krishna consciousness one's attraction leans toward conjugal love within the heart, that is called attachment in conjugal love, or madhura-rasa."

Similarly, hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bhaya and bibhatsa -- the seven indirect mellows -- are explained in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (4.1.6). The hasya-bhakti-rasa, laughing devotion, is explained as follows:

vakshyamanair vibhavadyaih pushtim hasa-ratir gata

hasya-bhakti-raso nama budhair esha nigadyate

"When through devotional service a laughing attachment to Krishna is developed, it is called hasya-bhakti-rasa by learned scholars."

Similarly, adbhuta-rasa is described in the Bhakti-rasamrita-sindhu (4.2.1):

atmocitair vibhavadyaih svadyatvam bhakta-cetasi

sa vismaya-ratir nitadbhuta-bhakti-raso bhavet

"When one's general attachment is fixed in wonder, it is called adbhuta-bhakti-rasa."

Vira-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.3.1):

saivotsaha-ratih sthayi vibhavadyair nijocitah

aniyamana svadyatvam vira-bhakti-raso bhavet

yuddha-dana-daya-dharmais caturdha-vira ucyate

"When attachment to Krishna mixes with the bellicose tendency, the charitable tendency or the merciful tendency in the heart of the devotee, such devotion is called vira-bhakti-rasa."

Karuna-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.4.1):

atmocitair vibhavadyair nita pushtim satam hridi

bhavec choka-ratir bhakti-raso hi karunabhidhah

"When one's devotional attitude and attachment for Krishna is mixed with lamentation, it is called karuna-bhakti-rasa."

Similarly, raudra-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.5.1):

nita krodha-ratih pushtim vibhavadyair nijocitaih

hridi bhakta-janasyasau raudra-bhakti-raso bhavet

"When devotion is mixed with anger in the heart of the devotee, the taste is called raudra-bhakti-rasa."

Bhayanaka-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.6.1):

vakshyamanair vibhavadyaih pushtim bhaya-ratir gata

bhayanakabhidho bhakti-raso dhirair udiryate

"When devotion is mixed with fear, it is called bhayanaka-bhakti-rasa."

Bibhatsa-bhakti-rasa is described as follows (B.r.s. 4.7.1):

pushtim nija-vibhavadyair jugupsa-ratir agata

asau bhakti-raso dhirair bibhatsakhya itiryate

"When one's attachment for Krishna develops in an abominable way, and the devotee enjoys it, that is called bibhatsa-bhakti-rasa."

In conclusion, when a pure devotee is situated in any of the five principal mellows (santa, dasya, sakhya, vatsalya or madhura) and that mellow is mixed with one or more of the seven indirect bhakti-rasas (hasya, adbhuta, vira, karuna, raudra, bhayanaka or bibhatsa), the indirect mellows become prominent.

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His Divine Grace A. C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada, Founder Acarya of the International Society for Krishna Consciousness